Buddhism And Jainism UPSC: About, Principles & Other Required Details

Gautam Buddha started Buddhism and is acknowledged as Supreme Buddha.

His birthplace is Lumbini, a little territory of Kapilvastu in the contemporary day of Nepal.

Buddhahood is the condition of flawless illumination achieved by a Buddha.

This denotes to the general and distinctive possessions of complete understanding.

Signs of 5 great events of Buddha’s Life:
• Buddha’s Birth: Lotus & Bull.
• The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana): Horse.
• Enlightenment (Nirvana): Bodhi Tree.
• First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan): Wheel.
• Death (Parinirvana): Stupa.

Four Noble Truths:

Buddha imparted four moral facts

They are the main teachings of Buddhism.
• Sorrow: The creation is bursting with grief and the whole thing from birth to death carries troubles in life.
• The reason of Sorrow: The reason of sorrows is craving. It is the accomplishment of human needs which got him trapped in the malicious series of births and rebirths.
• Deterrence of Sorrow: It is conceivable to avert grief. Male can chuck out sadness by overcoming the desires.
• The path of Prevention of Sorrow: Man can keep away from grief by getting about immoderations of life and sticking on the middle path. The life of control and self-discipline together with the undertaking of the 8-fold route is indispensable to avert the sadness.

Jainism 


A Jain is a supporter of Jina. A Jina is a vanquisher or Defeater. The Jains are devotees of specific abstainers who found wisdom and who talked on a principle which has an undertaking of a wonderful ordinary happiness of endless deliverance. Jainism created eras before Buddhism but invigorated by Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankar of Jainism.

Tirthankara: 


A Tirtha is a religious tourist place.  It is an originator of a Tirtha. He attains the explanation and then shows the ray of hopes others. It attains liberty in the last part of his human life. There are 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism. The first Tirthankara was Rishabhdev and preceding 24th Tirthankara remained Mahavira.

Mahavira: 


Kundagrama is the place where Mahavira was born is in Muzaffarpur Bihar.
The most prominent look upon Mahavira is Kalpasutra by Acharya Bhadrabahu I. The first Sanskrit biography of Mahavira was Vardhamacharitra by Asaga.

3 jewels of Jainism: 


1. Right faith
2. Right knowledge
3. Right conduct

The principles of Jainism as preached by Mahavir- 


1. Excluded the power of Vedas and Vedic rituals
2. Not certain of the presence of God.
3. Had faith in karma and the traveling of the soul.
4. Lead great infancies on equality
Around 300 century B.C Jainism was divided into 2 parts:

  1. Shwetambara: 


    Svetambara is a word unfolding its ascetics practice of putting on white clothes, which is separated from the Digambara Jainas, whose austere experts got unclothed. Svetambara, unlike Digambaras, does not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.
    Svetambaras also have confidence that women are gifted to find moksha. They sustain that the 19th Tirthankara, Mallinath, was a woman.
    The Svetambara tradition goes along with the ancestry of Acharya Sthulibhadra Suri. The Kalpa Sutra mentions some of the lineages in ancient times. The Svetambara monastic guidelines are branches of the Vrahada Order, which was created in 937 AD. The most projecting among the classical orders these days are the Kharatara (founded 1024 AD), the Tapa (founded 1228 AD) and the Tristutik.

  2. Digambaras: 


    It is one of the two main groups of Jainism. The Digambar group of Jainism castoffs the expert of the Jain Agama. As stated by Digambar tradition, Mahavir, the last Jain Tirthankara, was not wedded. He abandoned the world at thirty with the consent of his parents. The Digambara trust that after accomplishing explanation, Mahavira was unrestricted from human activities like hunger, thirst, and sleep. Monks in the Digambar tradition do not spot clothes. They convey a broom invented by tumbled peacock feathers and a water gourd.