UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam is made up of Law as one of the Optional Subjects with 2 papers paper 2 and paper 2. Each paper is equal to 250 marks adding up to 500 marks.
PAPER – I Constitutional and Administrative Law
- Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.
- Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
- The relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.
- The constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
- Governor and his powers.
- Supreme Court and High Courts:
(a) Appointments and transfer. (b) Powers, functions, and jurisdiction. 7. Centre, States, and local bodies: (a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States. (b) Local bodies. (c) The administrative relationship between Union, State, and Local Bodies. (d) Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property. 8. Legislative powers, privileges, and immunities.
- Services under the Union and the States:
(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative Tribunals. (b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions (c) Election Commission – Power and functions. 10. Emergency provisions.
- Amendment of the Constitution.
- Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach. 13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
- Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
- Judicial review of administrative action.
- Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal, etc.
- Nature and definition of international law.
- The relationship between international law and municipal law.
- State recognition and state succession.
- Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.
- Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
- The territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition, and asylum.
- Treaties: Formation, application, termination, and reservation.
- United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions, and reform.
- Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.
- Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defense, intervention.
11.Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.
- Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; the ban on the testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – nonproliferation treaty, CTBT.
- International terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.
- New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
- Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.
PAPER – II Law of Crimes
- General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus, men’s rea in statutory offenses.
- Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to the abolition of capital punishment.
- Preparation and criminal attempt.
- General exceptions.
- Joint and constructive liability.
- Criminal conspiracy.
- Offenses against the State.
- Offenses against public tranquility.
- Offenses against the human body.
- Offenses against property.
- Offenses against women.
- Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
- Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
- Plea bargaining.
Law of Torts
- Nature and definition.
- Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
- Vicarious liability including State liability.
- General defenses.
- Joint tortfeasors.
- False imprisonment.
- Malicious prosecution.
Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
- Nature and formation of contract/Contract.
- Factors were vitiating free consent.
- Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
- Performance and discharge of contracts.
- Quasi- Contracts.
- Consequences of breach of contract.
- Contract of indemnity, guarantee, and insurance.
- Contract of the agency.
- Sale of goods and hire purchase.
- Formation and dissolution of the partnership.
- Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
- Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
- Standard form contracts.
Contemporary Legal Developments
- Public Interest Litigation.
- Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.
- Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/prospects.
- Competition Law- Concept, purpose/prospects.
- Alternate Dispute Resolution – Concept, types/prospects.
- Major statutes concerning environmental law.
- Right to Information Act.
- Trial by media.